Ancient Roman Ethics

The ancient Pagan Romans recognized several "virtues," both personal and public. The modern word "virtue" is from Latin virtus: courage, strength, maleness, worth, excellence, goodness. Thus, virtue in this case represents a quality of inner "excellence." The virtues are valued as a foundation of good and civil behavior as they promoted individual and collective well being for all.

The Personal Virtues were the qualities of life to which every Roman citizen ought to aspire.

Personal Virtues
Roman culture also strove to uphold virtues which were shared by all of society in common. Some of the virtues to which individuals were expected to aspire were also public virtues to be expressed and embraced by Roman society as a whole.

Public Virtues

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